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Instructions for Authors
    Prostate International, the official English-language journal of Asian Pacific Prostate Society (APPS), is an international peer-reviewed academic journal dedicated to basic and clinical studies on prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, and other prostatic diseases. Original articles and topical reviews on various prostate-related conditions and problems are published in Prostate International, covering the state-of-the-art contents. Analysis articles on topical clinical, scientific, ethical, and policy issues, technical reports providing information on new methods or emerging techniques and invited/commissioned meeting reports are also published in Prostate International.
Prostate International represents the only academic journal devoted to various prostatic diseases in Asian Pacific region. The incidence, characteristics, and management of various diseases may vary according to region and race. Prostate International brings solid coverage of prostatic diseases in Asian Pacific men. Prostate International also serves as a medium for cooperation amongst urologists and specialists from around the world focusing on various aforementioned prostatic conditions.


For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in this instructions, 'Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals' (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html, Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors), 'Guidelines on Good Publication' (http://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines, Committee on publication ethics), 'Committee on Publication Ethics', and 'Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication' (http://www.icmje.org, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors [ICMJE]) can be applied.

1. Authorship
Authorship is reserved for those who make major contributions to the research and preparation of the paper. Assistants and colleagues who are not substantially involved in the work, but who assisted in some way may be included under the acknowledgments section. Authors are responsible for the factual accuracy and copyright of their contributions. Do not misrepresent data or distort facts. Avoid statements of opinion.
    Avoid copyright violation and plagiarism. As authors, you are responsible for providing proof of permission to use previously published or copyrighted material. Thoroughly document sources within the text and appropriately cite references at the end of the article. You must disclose to the Editorial Board of Prostate International if the article or any of its parts have already been published or are being considered for publication by other publishers.

2. Originality and duplicate publication
Manuscripts that have been already published elsewhere or in this journal should not be published. When a similar article has been already published elsewhere or in this journal, its copy should be submitted with the relevant manuscript. The Editorial Board of Prostate International will decide whether the relevant manuscript is delicately published and examine whether it can be published in this Journal.

3. Disclosure of conflict of interest

1) Conflict-of-interest statement
A conflict of interest may exist when an author (or the author's institution or employer) has financial or personal relationships or affiliations that could bias the author's decisions of the manuscript. Authors are expected to provide detailed information about all relevant financial interests and relationships or financial conflicts, particularly those present at the time the research was conducted and through publication, as well as other financial interests (such as patent applications in preparation), that represent potential future financial gain.
    All disclosures of any potential conflicts of interest, including specific financial interests and relationships and affiliations (other than those affiliations listed in the title page of the manuscript) relevant to the subject of their manuscript will be disclosed by the corresponding author on behalf of each coauthor, if any, as part of the submission process. Likewise, authors without conflicts of interest will be requested to state so as part of the submission process. If authors are uncertain about what constitutes a relevant financial interest or relationship, they should contact the editorial office. Failure to include this information in the manuscript will prohibit commencement of the review process of the manuscript. For all accepted manuscripts, each author's disclosures of conflicts of interest and relevant financial interests and affiliations and declarations of no such interests will be published. The policy requesting disclosure of conflicts of interest applies for all manuscript submissions. If an author's disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is determined to be inaccurate or incomplete after publication, a correction will be published to rectify the original published disclosure statement. Authors are also required to report detailed information regarding all financial and material support for the research and work, including but not limited to grant support, funding sources, and provision of equipment and supplies as part of the submission process. For all accepted manuscripts, each author's source of funding will be published.

2) Funding/support and role of sponsor
All financial and material support for the research and work will be requested to be clearly and completely identified as part of the submission process (Cover Letter). The specific role of the funding organization or sponsor in each of the following should be specified: "design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript." The corresponding author is responsible for acknowledging this on the authorship form at the time of submission.

4. Protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent
The ICMJE has recommended the following statement for the protection of privacy, confidentiality, and written informed consent: The rights of patients should not be infringed without written informed consent. Identifying details should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless it is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or his/her parents or guardian) provides written informed consent for publication. However, complete patient anonymity is difficult to achieve; therefore, informed consent should be obtained in the event that anonymity of the patient is not assured. For example, masking the eye region of patients in photographs is not adequate to ensure anonymity. If identifying characteristics are changed to protect anonymity, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should take note of this. When informed consent has been obtained, it should be indicated in the published article.

5. Regulations on ethics

1) Protection of human and animal rights Personal information with which a patient's identity can be established cannot be published with any forms including texts, photos, and pedigree. When personal information of patients is critical as scientific data, it should be stated clearly that the purpose of the study and mental & physical damages that can be done during the participation to the study were sufficiently explained for and written contents were submitted by the participants or their caregivers. In a report of an experiment for human subjects, it should be reported that the experiment complied with the ethics criteria of institutions reviewing ethics of experiment on human body or local "Ethics Committee on Clinical Experiments" and Declaration of Helsinki (http://www.wma.net/ en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html). The data for explanation such as photos should not include names, English initials, and hospital numbers of patients. In cases of animal experiments, it should be stated clearly that the processes complied with regulations of institutions or national research committee related to breeding and using laboratory animals or the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council, http://www.nap.edu/readingroom/ books/labrats/index.html). If necessary, it can be required to submit written consents and approvals of ethics committee.

2) Registration of clinical trial research Any research that deals with a clinical trial should be registered with a primary national clinical trial registration site such as http://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/index.jsp, or other sites accredited by WHO or the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors.

All published papers become the permanent property of the Asian Pacific Prostate Society (APPS). Copyrights of all published materials are owned by the APPS. They also follow the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License available from: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. For any commercial use of material from the open access version of the journal, permission must be obtained from the Asian Pacific Prostate Society.

Every author should sign the authorship responsibility and copyright transfer agreement form, attesting that he/she fulfills the authorship criteria. Authors are required to identify their contributions to the work described in the manuscript. The manuscript, when published, will become the property of the journal.

All manuscripts are submitted via the electronic article submission system of the website (http://submit.p-international.org/) of Prostate International (http://p-international.org/) with written consents containing all the authors' signatures on copyright transfer. When the publication is approved by the Editorial Board after reviewing, one final version of the manuscript of the article and the file containing all the contents should be finally submitted to the Editorial Board via the Internet article submission system.

    The submission day of a manuscript shall be the day when the manuscript is submitted, the author(s) is finally approved, and is delivered to the Editorial Board, and the day of decision of the publication shall be the day when the manuscript is completed of its reviewing and is decided to be published. Detailed information on manuscript submission and journal edition is provided in the "Online System Guide" in the website. More information on using the system can be inquired using the below-mentioned address.
Prostate International: pi@approstate.org (person in charge: Ms. Sunny Hyeong, Editorial Assistant)

1. Selection criteria
The Editorial Board will review each outline of manuscripts submitted. Acceptance and publication of the manuscript will be based on the following criteria:
1) It must have a unique thesis or angle and be relevant to the journals scope.
2) Its message must be clear, thorough, accurate and concise.
3) It must be in a format that maintains the journal's integrity of style.
4) It must be an original topic (one that hasn't been published in the Journal in the past two years) and fit into the editorial plan for the publication.
Outlines or manuscripts that don't meet the requirements may be rejected or returned to the author for revisions. All manuscripts will be edited for grammar, punctuation, usage, consistency, clarity and style. Authors will receive a copy of the manuscript after layout to review before publication. Authors may request extra copies of the issues after publication.

2. Prescreening
Prostate International requires that you outline submissions of your proposed topic and get that outline approved. Our editors will prescreen the outline of the submitted manuscripts based on the criteria above and contact you with anything necessary to ensure the manuscript will be publishable. Getting your outline approved will save you the time and effort of writing a manuscript that may be rejected.


Prostate International reviews all received materials. Manuscripts are sent to the three most relevant investigators, for reviews of the contents. The acceptance criteria for all papers are based on the quality and originality of the research and its clinical and scientific significance. An initial decision will normally be made within 2 weeks after the agreement of review by the reviewers, and the reviewers' comments will then be sent to the corresponding authors. Revised manuscripts must be submitted online by the corresponding author. Failure to resubmit the revised manuscript within 2 weeks of the editorial decision is regarded as a withdrawal. The editorial office should be notified if additional time is needed or if an author chooses not to submit a revision. The editorial committee makes decisions concerning editing, revision, and acceptance or rejection, and editing may include shortening an article, reducing the number of illustrations or tables, or changing the paper's format or the order of the manuscript. The editor selects referees results of the review will be classified as follows:
  1. Accepted: The manuscript will be forwarded to the publisher without further corrections.
  2. Minor revisions: The author should address the comments from the reviewers, which will be confirmed by the reviewers.
  3. Major revisions: The author should address the comments from the reviewers and make the appropriate corrections for review by the three reviewers.
  4. Rejection: When one out of the three reviewers rejects the manuscript, the final decision is made by the editorial committee.
  5. Consultation: Review of the manuscript will be done through consultation to subcommittees and subspecialties.

1. Review article
Review article shall be limited to an invited review article, which, by the Editorial Board, was selected as a significant theme from areas relevant to prostate disease field and whose authors were selected and referred on the basis of articles published in this or other journals. The submitted manuscript should be decided to be published via reviewing of the Editorial Board. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 3,500 words except for the cover, tables, figures, and references. The works in the references should not exceed 100.

2. Original article
The manuscript for original articles should be organized in the following order: 1) title page, 2) abstract and keywords, 3) introduction, 4) materials (or subjects) and methods, 5) results, 6) discussion, 7) conflict of interest, 8) acknowledgments (if necessary), 9) references, 10) tables, 11) figures and photos, and 12) legends.
The manuscript should be provided in MS Word file (doc, docx), double spaced on 212X297 mm (A4 size) with 2.5 cm margins at the top, bottom, and left margin.
The length of the manuscript should not exceed 3,000 words except for the cover, tables, figures, and references. No more than 35 references can be cited. All manuscript pages are to be numbered consecutively, beginning with the abstract as page 1. Neither the authors' names nor their affiliations should appear on the manuscript pages. The use of acronyms and abbreviations is discouraged and should be kept to a minimum. When used, they are to be defined where first used, followed by the acronym or abbreviation in parentheses. Abbreviations are not allowed in the title. The names and locations (city, state, and nation) of manufacturers of equipment and nongeneric drugs should be given. When quoting from other sources, give a reference number in bracket after the author's name or at the end of the quotation.

3. Analysis article
Analysis article shall be limited to an invited analysis article by the Editorial Board. Articles with an engaging style, an even-handed approach in evaluating evidence, a lucid line of argument and a worthwhile conclusion are considered eligible for publication. The submitted manuscript should be decided to be published via reviewing of the Editorial Board. The length of the manuscript should not exceed 3,500 words except for the cover, tables, figures, and references. The works in the references should not exceed 100.

4. Technology report
Brief articles that provide technical information on new methods or emerging techniques are published in Published in Prostate International. Technology Reports have a maximum word count of 12,000. The format is the same as that of an original article, although fewer words are preferred to allow more space for illustrations.

5. Meeting report
Meeting reports are usually commissioned but reports and suggestions may also be submitted for the editors' consideration. Meeting reports should focus on new research discoveries and the application of the knowledge. The format is the same as that of an original article but the works in the references should not exceed 60.


1. Title page
The title page should include the article title, name(s) of author(s), and institutional affiliations, and corresponding author and other footnotes. The author(s) should type the original and running title (less than 40 characters) in the title page directly. When there are several authors with different affiliations, the main institute should be recorded first and others be expressed as superscripts like 1, 2, 3, etc. next to the name of the relevant author and then the name of the affiliation in order. The corresponding author should present the name, affiliation, address, zip code, and contact details (such as Tel, Fax, and E-mail).

2. Abstract and keywords
The abstract should be brief descriptions of the manuscript, containing 300 words. The abstract should be a structured one which includes purpose, methods, results, and conclusions. A list of keywords, with a maximum of five items, should be included at the end of the abstract. The selection of keywords should be based on Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) of Index Medicus, and each keyword should begin with a capital letter. Do not use abbreviations or reference citations. The abstract of review article should be an unstructured format, only one paragraph and brief descriptions of the manuscript, containing 300 words.

3. Introduction
The introduction should address the purpose of the study briefly and concisely, and include background reports only related to the purpose of the study.

4. Materials and methods
The design, subjects, and methods should be described in order. When patients are the subjects, the properties, inclusion criteria, and exclusion criteria of the populations should be clarified. Particular chemicals or equipment should be clarified of the names of the suppliers, the cities, the states, and the nations according to unified forms. Explanation of the experimental methods should be sufficient for repetition by other researchers, though methods that had been reported in detail may be described briefly by citation of references. However, new methods or modifications of previously published methods should be described enough for other researchers to represent. The methods of statistical verification on the results should be clarified.

5. Results
The authors should describe clearly and logically their significant findings of observations or results corresponding to the purpose of the study, following the order in the methods. The authors should avoid overlapping descriptions by figures or tables and by main text, describing important results only. It should be clear which statistical test is associated with each P-value reported. Rarely used statistical techniques should be described. Medians and percentiles (such as quartiles) are preferred over means and standard deviations (or standard errors) when analyzing asymmetric data, especially when nonparametric statistics are calculated. Fractions (e.g., 5/10) should accompany percentages. In randomized clinical trials, consider reporting separate analyses with confounding variables included. If sample sizes differ between groups when patients are randomized, reasons should be provided.

6. Discussion
Important or new findings from the results of the study should be emphasized and the consequent conclusions are described, while repetition of the contents in the introduction and the results should be avoided. The authors are needed to describe the significance and limitations of the study and directions for the further studies, comparing with the results of the other related studies. Conclusion should be included in the discussion part. The conclusions should include a comprehensive description of the judgment or thoughts of the authors being induced from the results and discussion sections and corresponding to the purpose of the study mentioned in the introduction. The simple summary or overlapped array of the results should be avoided. An addition of directions for further studies or expected effects should be avoided if possible.

7. Conflict of interest
The corresponding author of an article is asked to inform the editor of the authors' potential conflicts of interest possibly influencing their interpretation of data. A potential conflict of interest should be disclosed in the manuscript even when the authors are confident that their judgments have not been influenced in preparing the manuscript. Such conflicts may be financial support or private connections to pharmaceutical companies, political pressure from interest groups, or academic problems (e.g., employment/affiliation, grants or funding, consultancies, stock ownership or options, royalties, or patents filed, received, or pending).

8. Acknowledgments
When necessary, acknowledgements shall be provided for those who contributed to the studying but were insufficient to be considered authors. The acknowledgements should express appreciation for the concrete roles of the contributors in the studying (e.g., data collection, financial assistance, statistical processing, and experimental analysis), and the authors should notify them that their names will be included in the acknowledgements for their advanced consents.

9. References
Abbreviations for the literature shall be based on the Index Medicus (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=journals). The works of references are provided within [ ] by the order of the citation in the text, without using the previous superscripts. First 6 authors are listed; thereafter add an et al. after the sixth author, for a journal article written by six or fewer authors, provide the names of all the authors. The description of the journal reference follows the below description. For more on references, refer to the "Citing Medicine: the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine)."

Journal article:
1. Kim WT, Kim WJ. MicroRNAs in prostate cancer. Prostate Int 2013;1:3-9.
2. Lu-Yao GL, Albertsen PC, Li H, Moore DF, Shih W, Lin Y, et al. Does primary androgen-deprivation therapy delay the receipt of secondary cancer therapy for localized prostate cancer? Eur Urol 2012;62:966-72.

Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007.

Book chapter:
Klein Ea, Platz EA, Thompson IM, Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention of prostate cancer. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA, editors. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders; 2007. p. 2854-73.

International Committee of Medical Journal Editor. Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: writing and editing for biomedical publication [Internet]. Philadelphia: International Committee of Medical Journal Editor, c2009 [cited 2013 Jan 1]. Available from: http://www. icmje.org/urm_main.html.

10. Tables
Tables should be written as "Table" in the text and be described briefly, left-aligned. All the abbreviations used should be described under the tables or figures. The first letter of the title of a table should be a capital letter, and do not use a period if the description is not a complete sentence. The table should be included one in a page as double space, written clearly and briefly. No vertical or horizontal lines are allowed to be included within a table. Title all tables and number them with Arabic numerals at the top of them, and table footnotes or description should be given as superscript in the order of a), b), c) ...

11. Figures
The author is responsible for submitting prints that are of sufficient quality to permit accurate reproduction, and for approving the final color galley proof. All photographs should be correctly exposed and sharply focused. The entire expense of reproducing color photographs will be charged to the author; current estimates for color reproduction can be obtained from the Editorial Office. Prostate International assumes no responsibility for the quality of the photography as it appears in the Journal. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photographs should contrast with the background. A legend for each light microscopic photograph should include name of stain and magnification (i.e., H&E, X400); electron microscopic photography should have an internal scale marker. All kinds of figures may be reduced, enlarged, or trimmed for publication by the editor. All the legends for figures should be double-spaced. Do not use a separate sheet for each legend. Figure legends should describe briefly the data shown, explain any abbreviations or reference points in the photograph. The figures should be numbered in the form Fig. 1, Fig. 2, and Fig. 3. Related figures should be combined into one figure, with each subfigure denoted by the letters, A, B, C, and so on, following the Arabic number of the main figure (i.e., Fig. 1A; Fig. 1B, C; Fig. 1A-C).
    Figures should be submitted as Tiff or EPS file format. If the only possible file format is JPEG, it must be in highest quality with minimum compression. It is recommended to size original figure widths to 4 inches wide. The minimum requirements for digital resolution are:
- 900 DPI/PPI for black and white images, such as line drawings or graphs.
- 300 DPI/PPI for picture-only photographs.
- 600 DPI/PPI for photographs containing pictures and line elements, i.e., text labels, thin lines, arrows.

12. Text style, numbers and units
If foreign-language words are needed, capital and small letters should be clarified: in principal, proper nouns, place names, and names of persons should be written with capital letter as the first letter and then small letters for the rest. When translated words are insufficient in conveying meanings, the translated term will be presented with the original term within parenthesis for the first time and then the translated term only can be used. Numbers should be written with Arabic numerals. The measurements of length, height, weight, and volume shall be recorded with the metric system (meters, grams, and liters), temperature shall be recorded with centigrade, and blood pressure shall be recorded with mmHg. The hematological or clinical test measurements shall be recorded on the basis of common units or the system of the International Units (SI).

Copyright© Asian Pacific Prostate Society.
Department of Urology, Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital, 222 Banpo-Daero, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 Korea
TEL : +82-2-2258-7638   E-mail : pi@approstate.org      Powered by M2community